Woodworkers' Popup Units Conversion Tool

Converts to/from decimal inches, fractional inches, millimeters. Popups must be enabled for this site. From the Liutaio Mottola lutherie information website.

Did you know ....

.... you can click on most of the assembly photos on this site to enlarge them for a close look? Also, hovering the cursor over most linear dimension values will convert the values to decimal inches, fractional inches, and SI units.

What the heck is a sagitta (also called the versine) and why would you want to calculate one? Here’s the deal. It turns out that there are a number of lutherie applications that make use of spherical domes or cylindrical sections. The plates of modern so-called flattop guitars are generally domed, and the plates of some other instruments often describe a cylindrical section. Such instruments are built on dished and trough-shaped forms (work boards) which force the thin plate into the final shape. To build such work boards, or to figure out the depth of the sides needed to mate with shaped plates, or even to make radius sanding blocks for shaping fingerboards, one needs to know the relationship between the radius of a circular arc, the length of the chord connecting its two ends, and the deflection of the highest point or that arc from the center of the chord. This latter quantity is called the sagitta, or sag for short. A Javascript calculator is provided for those that don't want to do the math.

Last updated: Thursday, January 30, 2014

The diagram below will help to visualize the quantities involved and their
relationship to each
other. The circular arc is in red and is of radius ** r**.
The chord (span) connecting the ends of the arc is divided in half, and that
is labeled

The formula for calculating the sag is:

where:

The formula can be used with any units, but make sure they are all the same, i.e. all in inches, all in cm, etc.

A related formula can be used to derive the radius of an arc from span and displacement measurements. This can be used to, say, figure out the radius of an unmarked dished workboard. lay a ruler across the dished surface and then drop another ruler from the center of the first ruler down to the surface of the dish. The length of the first ruler is the span and the distance from the first ruler to the surface of the dish is the sagitta or displacement. The formula is:

where:

A related formula can be used to calculate the height of the arch at any point - not just in the center. This formula can be used by those that want to build a dish by routing out a board to different depths for example. The first step is to calculate the sagitta ** s** for the arc based on the radius

The formula is:

where:

See American Lutherie for a number of articles on construction of jigs and fixtures for building instruments with domed plates. And check out Jon Sevy’s Lutherie Resources website again for a nice applet and spreadsheets that will do this math for you.